Types of knee replacement surgery
Total Knee Replacement (TKR):
In this procedure, the complete knee joint is replaced with an artificial implant, which is made of metal alloys and plastic components. It is an ideal option for patients who suffer from severe joint dysfunction or disease.
The surgeon removes the damaged parts of the knee joint along with the ends of thigh bone (femur) and shin bone (tibia). Then, they resurface the knee and shape it to fit the appropriate size of implant.
The knee replacement implant made of metal is usually placed on the end of tibia and femur with a flat metal plate. It can be fixed using bone ‘cement’, or are by a ‘cement-less’ method. A plastic spacer is put in between the metal parts so that it acts as cartilage and make the joint movement smoother. The replacement joint is typically expected to last around 15-20 years.
Partial Knee Replacement (PKR):
This is a less extensive surgery and is usually recommended when only one side of the knee is damaged. In this, the surgeon makes a smaller incision to replace the joint part, and therefore there is less surgical trauma to the bone and tissues. The advantages to with PKR is that it requires a shorter hospital stay, less risk of post-operative complications and faster recovery. The patients can expect more natural movement of the knee and ability to be more active than with a total knee replacement.
Revision knee replacement surgery: This is a secondary operation which is performed to replace the implants placed during the primary knee replacement surgery. It is needed when the earlier replacement fails, wears off or gets dislocated.
Minimal invasion surgery: This is a keyhole operation in which the surgeon makes smaller incisions than a standard knee replacement surgery to access the damaged knee. It involves the use of special instruments to cut the bones and perform the operation. This surgery offers the benefit of faster recovery and less post-operative complications such as blood loss, infection and pain. This joint replacement surgery can also be performed using robotic-assisted system which is an advanced procedure for knee replacement and offers more precision by eliminating hand errors.
The surgeon uses the latest technology such as computer-navigation system also. This is an advanced system that helps the surgeon during the surgery by providing images through the infrared cameras on a screen. It also offers more accuracy during the operation and enables the surgeon to make minor incisions for accessing the joint.
Outpatient knee replacement surgery at Fortis Hospital
Outpatient knee replacement surgery or the same-day knee replacement is also called ambulatory knee replacement. In this, the surgeon uses an advanced technique that reduces the hospital stay and allows the patient to go home from the hospital on the same day. It is offered to some select patients after careful evaluation of their health status and knee condition.
The patient does not need to stay overnight or more for days on an inpatient basis as in the case of conventional knee replacement surgery. The day-care surgery is an outpatient procedure, but it is currently available for some patients only.
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