Types of Surgical Approaches
Nephrectomy surgeons in India may follow any of the following two surgical approaches to remove the diseased or damaged kidney:
Open surgical nephrectomy is performed under the influence of general anesthesia. In this approach, the surgeon makes a single large incision in the abdomen or side of the abdomen. The incision may range between 10 and 20 inches.
Once the surgeon has an access to the kidney, the ureter and the blood vessels can be easily worked upon. Important blood vessels and the ureter are disconnected and clamped. Depending on the requirement of the patient, either infected portion of the kidney is removed alone or it is removed along with the ureter, adrenal gland, or the surrounding tissues.
The incisions are closed with the help of sutures after the removal of the targeted regions. This surgical procedure may take up to four hours, depending on the complexities involved.
Laparoscopic Nephrectomy Surgery
This approach is also known as “keyhole surgery.” It is a minimally invasive technique used to perform nephrectomy and other procedures without affecting the non-targeted areas of the body. In this approach, the abdomen is inflated with the help of a gas (like carbon dioxide) to create a space between the abdominal walls and the organs inside it.
The surgeon makes three to four tiny incisions in the abdominal area. A narrow tube is then inserted through the abdominal wall to introduce instruments by sliding through it. A video camera attached to the laparoscope helps the surgeon get an inside view on a monitor.
The kidney is carefully dissected apart from the ureter and the blood vessels. The kidney is then removed from one of the cuts which are large enough to pull out the kidney from the stomach. The surgeon removes the laparoscope and other instruments after removing the kidney and closes the incisions with sutures.
The laparoscopic surgery may also be conducted with the help of a robot. The robotic system requires the creation of minute incisions to perform the procedure. Extreme dexterity and precision can be attained with the help of a robot to remove the diseased tissues.