Nephrectomy refers to the removal of some portion of, or an entire kidney. The procedure is usually used for removing the diseased organ from the body. There are many reasons for which a kidney might become dysfunctional. It could be damage due to high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer infections, calculus, and problems in renal artery or vein etc. Depending upon the damage, your doctor will decide upon the procedure that suits you the best. A person whose both kidneys have been damaged will need to undergo a kidney transplant procedure. An individual can live a healthy and normal life with one healthy and functional kidney.