Fanconi's Anemia Treatment Cost in India

Fanconi’s Anemia is treated using Allogeneic bone marrow transplant, the cost of which starts from USD 22,000 (INR 16,14,000) in India. The cost is subjective to many factors and can be more or less depending on your medical condition, availablity of the donor, experience of the surgeon and the type of hospital you choose.
Bone Marrow Transplant Cost in India

Fanconi’s Anemia, also called Fanconi Anemia or FA, is a rare, inherited, genetic disease in which the DNA lacks the ability to repair itself. This malfunction leads to chromosome instability meaning that the DNA breaks or rearranges easily. FA is equally reported in both males and females and in all ethnic groups. 

Fanconi’s Anemia manifests as a progressive deficiency in the bone marrows ability to produce blood cells. The disease is linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer such as tumors of the genital and gastrointestinal systems, tumors of the skin, head and neck and Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Fifty percent of patients are diagnosed at 10 years of age or younger. While there are several sub-types of FA most of them share the same symptoms. 

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Causes of Fanconi’s Anemia (FA) 

Fanconi’s Anemia is caused by a rare genetic abnormality that leads to the DNAs inability to repair itself. As a result of the abnormality, the DNA breaks or rearranges itself easily a condition known as chromosome instability. Fanconi’s Anemia is an inherited disease, which means that the disease is passed to the children through faulty genes from the parents.

There have been eighteen gene abnormalities linked to occurrences of FA. If only one parent has one of the faulty genes and passes it on to the child, the child will be a carrier of the gene but will not develop the disease. When both parents have the same faulty gene, and both pass it on to the child, then the child will develop Fanconi’s Anemia.

If only one parent passes on the faulty gene then the child will be a carrier, and can pass the gene or the disease, on to their own children but they do not, themselves, develop the disease. When both parents possess the faulty gene there is a 25% chance of having Fanconi’s Anemia and a 50% chance of being a carrier. If only one of the parents has a faulty gene, the child won’t have the disorder but will have a 50% chance of being an FA carrier and passing the gene to their children.

Diagnosis of Fanconi’s Anemia

Fanconi’s Anemia is generally diagnosed in early childhood due to the physical abnormalities associated with the disease. Some abnormalities may manifest at birth, such as having too many or malformed fingers or thumbs, while others, such as short stature or underdeveloped head, and skin pigmentation issues are detected between the ages of two and fifteen as the child develops.

If no physical abnormalities are present the disease may go undiagnosed until symptoms associated with anemia develop such as difficulty breathing, fatigue, or bleeding or bruising easily or excessively. A variety of tests are used to diagnose FA depending on the age of the patient but only genetic testing can confirm the diagnosis.

Symptoms of Fanconi’s Anemia

The symptoms of Fanconi’s Anemia vary a great deal. Some of the earliest markers of FA are the physical abnormalities that manifest in early childhood. 60% of children born with Fanconi’s Anemia display one or more of the following physical abnormalities.

  • Fingers – Fingers or thumbs that are misshaped or having extra fingers or thumbs
  • Arms – A missing radius (forearm bone) or a radius that is not completely formed
  • Skeletal – Various abnormalities of the spine, hips or ribs
  • Height – Short Stature
  • Weight – Unusually low birth weight
  • Head – Underdeveloped or small head
  • Eyes – Unusually small eyes, eyes that are crossed or spaced too far apart
  • Skin – Abnormalities in skin pigmentation called “café au lait spots”
  • Heart – Defects in the tissues that separate the chambers of the heart
  • Organs – Underdeveloped reproductive organs, malformed kidneys, and problems with the gastrointestinal system.

Symptoms related to blood production generally begin to appear around the age of six. As the anemia progress patients may develop symptoms that include:

  • Fatigue/Tiredness or increased need for sleep
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Weakness
  • Irritability
  • Headaches
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Cardiac Symptoms
  • Bruising easily or excessive bruising
  • Bleeding of the gums, nose or mucous membranes.
  • Frequent infections

The majority of patients with Fanconi’s Anemia will eventually develop bone marrow failure. Bone marrow is the substance in the bones that produces blood cells. When the bone marrow fails it can no longer produce enough fully developed blood cells to support the body. Conditions related to bone marrow failure include: 

  • Anemia – Low red blood cells
  • Leukopenia – Low white blood cells
  • Neutropenia – Low neutrophils cells (a type of white blood cell)
  • Thrombocytopenia – Low platelets

Patients who survive to adulthood are at extremely high risk of developing gastrointestinal or gynecological cancers or cancer of the head and neck even if the disease did not manifest symptoms earlier in life.

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Lyfboat is a free advisory platform; we do not charge any fees from patients. In fact, we negotiate the price that Indian hospitals offer. In some cases we are able to reduce the cost by negotiating upto 20% of what Hospitals generally offer. We advise the best treatment from the top hospital/surgeon at best price.

Treatments For Fanconi’s Anemia

The treatments for Fanconi’s Anemia typically focus on managing the symptoms of the disease. The treatment options depend on factors such as age, the progression of the disease and overall health. Short-term treatments may include:

  • Regular blood tests to monitor blood cell counts
  • Annual bone marrow tests to monitor the marrows ability to produce blood cells
  • Screenings for cancers and tumors
  • Antibiotics, prescribed as needed, to treat infections
  • Blood transfusions, when needed, to increase cell count(s)

Currently, the only long-term treatment for Fanconi’s Anemia is a bone marrow or stem cell transplant. During this procedure, radiation and/or chemotherapy is used to destroy the existing, damaged, bone marrow which is then replaced with healthy donor cells.

In some cases, doctors may choose to use a type of hormone therapy called androgen therapy. Androgen therapy uses male hormones to enhance blood production. Androgen therapy only lasts for a short time and can lead to liver damage so the choice to use it must be weighed against the patient’s age and overall health.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) About Fanconi’s Anemia Treatment in India

Q. How long can a person live with Fanconi’s Anemia?

The average life expectancy of patients with Fanconi’s Anemia is approximately 20 to 30 years. 80% of people with FA live to the age of 18 or older and some cases have been reported of patients surviving into their 50s.

Q. Is Fanconi’s Anemia a type of Cancer?

While Fanconi’s Anemia is sometimes referred to as a blood cancer it is actually a recessive genetic disorder that is inherited from parents that carry the damaged genes. However, FA does predispose patients to a variety of cancers including those of the reproductive organs, gastrointestinal system head, and neck as well as acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinoma.

Q. How common is Fanconi’s Anemia?

Fanconi’s Anemia is a rare genetic disorder that occurs in approximately 1 out of every 160,000 births. FA occurs in both females and males equally and is present in all ethnic groups.

Q. What is Fanconi Syndrom? Is Fanconi Syndrom the same thing as Fanconi’s Anemia?

Fanconi Syndrom is not related to Fanconi’s Anemia. Fanconi Syndrom is a rare disorder of the kidneys.

Q. Can you die from Fanconi’s Anemia? Is Fanconi’s Anemia Fatal?

The average life expectancy of patients with Fanconi’s Anemia is 20 to 30 years though there have been reports of patients living into their 50’s. Death is generally a result of bone marrow failure, leukemia or cancers that develop as a result of FA.

Q. How is Fanconi’s Anemia Inherited?

FA is inherited through a recessive autosomal pattern. This means that both copies of the gene inherited from the parents must possess the mutation for the disease to manifest.

Q. What are the symptoms/signs of Fanconi’s Anemia?

Fanconi’s Anemia is generally diagnosed in early childhood due to physical abnormalities such as malformed fingers or thumbs, short stature, underdeveloped reproductive organs or skin pigmentation abnormalities. If no physical abnormalities are present, the disease may go undetected until symptoms related to the Anemia develop. These symptoms can include:

  • Fatigue or tiredness
  • Nosebleeds, bleeding of the gums or mucous membranes
  • Easy or excessive bruising
  • Shortness of breath
  • Frequent infections

Q. Can Fanconi’s Anemia be prevented?

Unfortunately, there is no way to prevent Fanconi’s Anemia since it is an inherited genetic disorder.

Q. Can Fanconi’s Anemia be cured?

There is currently no known cure for Fanconi’s Anemia. Treatment consists short and long term management of complications and symptoms.

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Vanshika Rawat

Written By Vanshika Rawat

Vanshika Rawat is an experienced content developer. She is very knowledgeable in the field of science and healthcare and has worked under brilliant scientists during her higher education. Vanshika obtained her degrees in Masters in Science and Bachelors in Science (Microbiology with Hons.) from renowned institutions - Panjab University and University of Delhi.
Dr. Surbhi Suden

Verified By Dr. Surbhi Suden

Dr. Surbhi Suden is one of the founders of Lyfboat and a doctor with a renowned name in the Medical tourism industry. She has been working with international patients since 2008 and is a deeply committed professional with a long term vision of transforming the current healthcare scenarios.
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