Types of Spine Surgery
Discectomy (Cervical and Lumbar)
This type of spine surgery involves the removal of a herniated disc material. It is the central part of the intervertebral disc that puts excess pressure on the nerve root, called the spinal cord. The pressing of the nerve root may send a wave of pain across the entire spinal cord and the radiating nerves.
Discectomy can be performed using open surgery or with the latest technology. The technologies are laser, endoscope, or microsurgical approaches. All these techniques help remove the nucleus pulposus, the central part of the spine.
Kyphoplasty is a popular procedure used for the treatment of spine fractures. It may result because of a variety of reasons, including injury due to fall or accident, cancer, benign tumor and osteoporosis.
An orthopedic balloon is inserted below the fractured vertebrae. It helps to elevate it a little and place it in its original location. At the same time, the spine surgeon also injects some bone cement to fix the fracture.
The surgery may take an hour per fracture fixed. Balloon kyphoplasty can be conducted as an outpatient or an inpatient procedure. It depends on the health of the patient and the extent of the damage.
This procedure is a great solution for the pain in the spine that occurs due to the abnormal motion of the different vertebrae. The abnormal motion could result because of many conditions. It includes spondylosis, spinal disc herniation, discogenic pain, degenerative disc disease, scoliosis, spinal tumor removal, vertebral fracture and kyphosis.
During spinal fusion, two or more vertebrae are fixed together to form a single solid bone. This is done to restrict the abnormal movement between the vertebrae that results in pain.
The spine surgeon first obtains a piece of bone from the pelvis and this graft is placed in between or on the side of the bones to the fused together. The vertebrae are fixed in their place with the help of screws, plates, or rods. The vertebrae fuse to form a single bone as the graft heals.
Laminoplasty is a surgical procedure used to increase the space for the spinal cord and the nerve root. This helps relieve any abnormal pressure in the spinal cord (spinal stenosis) that could be leading to pain. It is also performed in cases of spinal tumors and spinal cord cysts.
During this procedure, the surgeon cuts through the lamina of the affected vertebrae completely. It creates more space for the spinal cord. The improved room for the spinal cord helps relieve any pressure instantly. The open bone flap is then attached to small pieces of bone or wedges so that the spinal canal remains enlarged. Any tumor or cyst is removed during the procedure before attached wedges to the bone flap.
This procedure involves partial removal of the lamina. It helps to decompress the nerve root and relieve the pressure. It is a common yet major procedure. It can be performed on four different types of vertebrae – cervical, lumbar, sacral and thoracic.
Laminotomy can be performed on a single or many vertebrae. This procedure is combined with other spinal procedures such as discectomy and spinal fusion.
This is a minimally invasive procedure conducted to decrease the volume of a herniated disc. This is conducted by removing or decompressing tissue from the center of the disc. This helps reduce the pressure inserted by the herniation on the spinal cord and the nerve root. As a result, it helps relieve chronic back pain resulting due to herniation.