Sports Injury Treatment in India

Healthy Bones
  • Exercise is vital for maintaining good health, but engaging in sports or other physical activities can lead to injuries.
  • An injury sustained in sports, exercise, or athletic activity is known as a sports-related injury. Sports injuries can occur suddenly or gradually over time.
  • The term “sports injury” describes a broad range of injuries that are most frequently sustained while exercising or playing sports, not just those sustained by athletes.
  • Even though they may not play sports, factory workers get tennis elbow, painters get shoulder injuries, and gardeners get tendinitis. Eventually, though, “sports injuries” refer to those that affect active people.
  • This medical condition focuses on musculoskeletal injuries, which are the most prevalent kind of sports injuries.
  • The network of bones, tendons, ligaments, muscles, and other tissues that give the body stability and permit movement is known as the musculoskeletal system.
  • Acute and chronic injuries are the two main categories into which sports injuries fall. Acute injuries occur suddenly, as in the case of falls, blows, or twisting a joint, whereas chronic injuries are typically the consequence of overusing a single body part and manifest gradually over time.
  • Stress fractures and shin splints are examples of common chronic injuries, whereas sprains and dislocations are examples of acute injuries.
  • Sports injuries can be treated in a variety of ways, but minor ones can typically be taken care of at home with R-I-C-E (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) of the affected area of the body.
  • One may require medical intervention for serious injuries, as they might require physical therapy for rehabilitation or the fitting of a cast, splint, or brace. Sometimes, one might require surgery.
  • Before returning to the sport or activity that caused the injury, it is usually advised to follow a rehabilitation program that incorporates exercise and other forms of therapy.
  • While negative outcomes from sports and exercise do occasionally occur, the majority of physical activity is safe for almost everyone, and the health benefits far outweigh the risks.

People Prone to Sports Injuries

Sports injuries can happen to anyone, but several things can make it more likely.

Among the risk factors for sports-related injuries are:

  • Not employing the proper training methods.
  • Overtraining refers to training too frequently, too long, or too often.
  • Increasing or decreasing physical activity too soon.
  • Engaging in the same sport all year long.
  • Leaping or sprinting on solid ground.
  • Donning footwear lacking sufficient arch support.
  • Not having the appropriate equipment.
  • Having sustained an injury in the past.
  • Having a lack of flexibility or specific anatomical characteristics for each joint.
  • Using specific drugs, like the antibiotic class fluoroquinolones, connected to tendinitis and tendon rupture.

The kind of activity one engages in, age, gender, and other factors determine the injury you are most susceptible to.

Factors That Determine Sports Injuries

  • Skills
  • Gender
  • Age
  • Wearing safety gear
  • Positional play and game tactics.

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A precise diagnosis is crucial for any sports-related injury and frequently marks the start of the healing process. Accurately diagnosing the condition, ruling out underlying conditions, and creating a customized treatment plan for the patient are all made easier with its assistance.

To identify a sports injury, medical professionals use a variety of examinations and evaluations. The steps in the diagnostic process are as follows:

Physical Assessment: During a clinical evaluation, the doctors perform a comprehensive physical assessment of the patient. They evaluate their range of motion, strength, and stability to determine the type and extent of the injury.

Medical History: The physicians inquire about the patient’s past medical history as well as the symptoms they are currently experiencing. During their consultation, patients are required to disclose any prior injuries, underlying medical conditions, and training regimens. This information is crucial in creating a treatment plan that works.

Imaging Research: To see inside structures and determine the type and extent of injuries, imaging tests like MRIs, ultrasounds, and X-rays are performed.

Functional Assessments: To determine how the injury has affected the athlete’s performance, the doctors evaluate the athlete’s functional skills, such as agility, coordination, and biomechanics.

Types of Sports Injuries

There are two main categories of sports injuries:

  • Acute injuries are those that occur suddenly.
  • Chronic injuries are those that occur over time and are typically caused by overuse.

Acute injuries can occasionally be the result of wear and tear from overuse injuries.

Types of Musculoskeletal Injuries:

Athletes frequently sustain musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, tendinitis, or bursitis. The terms are defined below:

Bone fracture

A fracture is a break in a bone that can result from repeated stress (stress fracture) or a sudden, acute injury (acute fracture). Children still growing are the only ones who get growth plate fractures.

  • Acute fractures: A fracture can result from a blow, automobile accident, fall, or other trauma; the degree of the break depends on the force that caused it. The bone could break completely, crack, or shatter. Compound fractures are injuries that penetrate through the skin to the bone; these injuries are particularly dangerous because of the higher risk of infection. An acute fracture is usually an emergency.
  • Stress fractures: Stress fractures primarily affect the weight-bearing bones of the lower extremities. These comprise the foot bones, tibia, and fibula, as well as the femur. They are prevalent in sports involving repetitive impact, especially those involving running or jumping, like track and field, gymnastics, tennis, basketball, and gymnastics. Running puts forces on the lower limbs that are two to three times that of the user’s body weight.
  • Fractures in the growth plate: The growth plate, a region of cartilage found close to the tips of long bones, allows the bones to grow until a child reaches their maximum height. Until growth plates are transformed into bone, usually by the time a child reaches the age of 20, they are particularly prone to damage. A single traumatic event, like a fall or auto accident, as well as prolonged stress and overuse, can cause growth plate fractures.


  • Sprains are stretches or tears of ligaments, the bands of connective tissue that join the end of one bone with another.
  • Sprains are caused by trauma such as a fall or blow that knocks a joint out of position.
  • Sprains can range from first-degree (minimally stretched ligament) to third-degree (a complete tear).
  • Areas of the body most vulnerable to sprains are ankles, knees, and wrists.


  • A muscle or tendon, which is a tissue cord that connects the muscle to the bone, can be twisted, pulled, or torn in a strain.
  • Strains can occur in athletes who play contact sports, but they can also occur in athletes who play sports where they must repeatedly perform the same motion, like tennis or golf.
  • Similar to sprains, strains can cause a muscle or tendon to partially or completely tear from a small stretch.
  • Most often, this occurs in the tendons or muscles that connect two joints. Examples include hamstring strain, back strain, and abdominal strain.


  • Inflammation of a tendon, which is a flexible band of fibrous tissue that joins muscles to bones, is known as tendinitis. The shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, or ankle are frequently affected.
  • Although a sudden injury can result in tendinitis, repetitive motions are typically the cause.
  • A higher risk of tendinitis is seen in occupations like carpentry, gardening, music, and some sports like tennis and golf.
  • As one ages, the tendon’s flexibility decreases, increasing the risk of tendinitis. An example is a jumper’s knee (patellar tendonitis).


  • Bursae, which are tiny, fluid-filled sacs that serve as cushions between a bone and other moving parts like muscles, tendons, or skin, can become inflamed.
  • This condition is known as bursitis. A blow or fall are example of a one-time event that can result in bursitis.
  • It can also happen from repeatedly performing the same action, like throwing a ball, or from applying pressure for an extended period, like when kneeling on a hard surface or resting on your elbows.
  • Usually, it affects the knees, hips, shoulders, or elbows.


  • A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury brought on by a blow to the head, a violent jolt, or a bump.
  • A concussion can affect anyone, at any age, including newborns. As a symptom, headaches are most common.
  • The majority of symptoms go away in 14 to 21 days.
  • Everybody has a different recovery plan, but they all entail rest—both physical and mental—and a gradual return to activities.

Tear in the cartilage

  • Some bones’ ends are covered and shielded by cartilage, a robust but flexible shock absorber.
  • Injuries to the cartilage can affect joints like the knee and shoulder.

Common Sports Injuries

The majority of sports injuries include one or more of the musculoskeletal injury types mentioned previously. The joints are especially vulnerable because the human body puts a lot of strain on them. Joints are intricate structures with many interconnected parts that need to offer both stability and flexibility.

Athletes and people with jobs or hobbies requiring repetitive motion frequently sustain injuries such as these:

Shoulder Injuries

  • Rotator cuff damage: These are the most typical injuries to the shoulder. Four muscles and tendons work together to stabilize the shoulder joint, and they are called the rotator cuff. Rotator cuff injuries result from overuse or a sudden trauma that inflames the tendons or bursae around the joint. Those who work in occupations requiring overhead motions, like painters, or athletes who frequently reach upward, like tennis players and swimmers, experience them.
  • Infringement: This occurs when the arm is raised, pressing on the soft tissues beneath the top of the shoulder blade. It is possible for tendinitis and bursitis to develop, which can hurt and limit mobility. Impingement risk increases with repeated overhead movements, like those made by swimmers.
  • Lack of stability: When the upper arm bone’s round end is partially or forced out of its shallow socket, shoulder instability results. The shoulder becomes “loose” and is susceptible to repeated dislocations once the muscles, ligaments, and tendons are strained or torn.

Elbow Injuries

  • Lateral epicondylitis, or tennis elbow: Playing racket sports, such as tennis, can lead to small tears and inflammation in the elbow tendons, which can cause pain on the outer side of the elbow. Tennis elbow is more common in professions involving repetitive forearm use, such as carpentry, painting, and plumbing.
  • The elbow of a golfer (medial epicondylitis). This particular type of tendinitis hurts the inside of the elbow. Wrist and forearm pain are possible to develop. It can develop in golfers and other people who clench their fingers or use their wrists a lot.
  • Elbow in little league: This elbow growth plate injury in young athletes is brought on by repeated throwing. Pitchers are most likely to get it, but it can affect any young athlete who throws frequently. The inner portion of the elbow is where the pain is.
  • Injury to the ulnar collateral ligament. This inner elbow ligament may tear with repeated throwing, resulting in pain and reduced throwing efficiency.

Knee Injury

  • Knee pain in runners: This condition, also known as patellofemoral pain syndrome or jumper’s knee, produces pain or tenderness at the front of the knee, near or under the patella, or kneecap. Although it is prevalent in runners, it also affects other active individuals, like cyclists and hikers.
  • Breakage: Any bone in the knee region is susceptible to fractures, but the most common type is the patella, which is most frequently caused by an incident like a fall or blow to the knee.
  • A shift: A significant blow to the knee may push the kneecap out of alignment and force it out of the femur, the thigh bone’s groove, causing the kneecap to slide out of place.
  • Torn ligament: Ligaments within the knee can tear when it is twisted or overextended. Ankle cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are particularly prevalent in sportspeople. They frequently occur when someone abruptly changes course or jumps and lands.
  • Meniscal rip: In the knee, meniscal cartilage acts as a shock absorber. A tear may result from an awkward twist or pivot. When the knee ligaments are completely torn or sprained, they are frequently torn.
  • Tear in the tendon: People in their middle age who participate in sports that require running and jumping are more likely to suffer from tendon tears. They frequently result from a hard landing and occasionally from an ungainly leap.

Leg Injuries

  • Pull on the groin: Swift side-to-side movements can cause a groin pull by putting strain on the inner thigh muscles. Sports players, including those who participate in baseball, football, hockey, and soccer, are more likely to suffer groin pulls.
  • Strain in the hamstrings. The hamstring is made up of three muscles that run along the back of the thigh. A hamstring strain can occur from engaging in a lot of running, jumping, and abrupt starts and stops. Players of basketball, football, and soccer frequently receive them.
  • Shin splints: The pain felt along the inside length of the tibia, the large bone in the front of the lower leg, is known as “shin splints.” It is brought on by inflammation of the muscles, tendons, and bone tissue. Usually, the inner side of the lower leg is where the pain is. Most often, runners—especially those who are just beginning a running program—have shin splints.

Ankle Strains

  • Ankle strain: Ankle sprains can result from rolling, twisting, or turning your ankle awkwardly, which can stretch or tear the ligaments in the joint. It may occur as a result of someone else landing on your foot, when you walk on an uneven surface, or when you jump or pivot and land awkwardly. Ankle sprains are a common injury among athletes who play pivot-heavy sports like basketball and volleyball.
  • Achilles Tendinitis: Injuries to the tendon that connects the calf muscle to the back of the heel are known as Achilles tendon injuries. The Achilles tendon is the body’s largest tendon and is used when running, walking, jumping, climbing stairs, and standing on tiptoes. People with Achilles tendinitis usually experience stiffness and pain in the back of the heel, especially in the morning. This condition is usually caused by overuse and can be chronic, but in severe cases, it may lead to a tear that requires surgery.

Sports-Related Injury Symptoms

Depending on the kind of injury one has; your sports injury symptoms will vary.

  • An acute injury can present with sudden, excruciating pain.
  • Severe bruises or oedema.
  • Being unable to bear weight on one’s ankle, foot, knee, or leg.
  • Unable to move a joint in a normal manner.
  • Severe weakness in a wounded limb.
  • A mispositioned bone or joint.
  • Deformity, such as a bone or joint looking out of place.
  • Decreased range of motion.
  • Grinding, cracking, clicking, or popping noise.
  • Inability to bear weight on your hip, leg, or foot.
  • Skin that’s warm to the touch.
  • Stiffness or weakness.

Signs of an overuse-related chronic injury include:

  • Pain during physical activity or play.
  • Oedema and a dull ache during sleep.

Causes of Sports Injury

There are numerous causes of sports injuries, such as:

  • Incidents like falls.
  • Exercise bad habits include not warming up or stretching enough.
  • Absence of safety gear or gear that is mismatched or worn too tightly.
  • Shoes with inadequate support or poor fit.
  • The body isn’t used to a sudden start to an exercise program or a large increase in physical activity.

Treatment in the case of Sports Injury in India

Self-management following a sports injury

Stop playing or working out right away if you get hurt while exercising. If you continue, you could do more damage.

The RICE method helps most minor sports injuries heal in a few days:

  • Rest: Take a few days off from using the injured area. Consider using crutches if you have a lower-body injury so that you can avoid bearing weight on the affected area.
  • Ice: To lessen pain and swelling, apply ice or cold packs to the injured area (for example, 15 to 20 minutes every four hours).
  • Compression: To offer support and lessen swelling, encircle the injured area with an elastic bandage. Make sure the fit is snug but not so tight as to cause pain or restrict blood flow.
  • Elevation: To rest and lessen swelling, elevate the affected body part, if at all possible, above the level of your heart. If possible, elevate the injury above your heart with a pillow or similar support.

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Medical Interventions and Treatment in the Case of Sports Injury in India

Sports injuries vary greatly in terms of their type and severity of treatment. With rest and at-home techniques, many sports injuries recover in a matter of days or weeks.

However, for more severe wounds, the course of care could include:

  • Immobilization utilizing a walking boot, splint, cast, or other medical device.
  • Injections to lessen discomfort and swelling.
  • Anti-inflammatory prescription drugs.
  • Surgery to mend torn cartilage, ligaments, or tendons, or to fix fractures.
  • Physical therapy, commonly referred to as rehabilitation or rehab, is used to strengthen and heal damaged body parts.

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with the doctor or visit the emergency room if it seems to be a serious injury. The following signs could indicate a serious injury that needs medical attention from a professional:

  • Excruciating pain and swelling
  • Obvious abnormalities, like big lumps or limbs twisted at odd angles
  • Breathing difficulties, dizziness, fever, popping or crunching sounds when you move the injured area, and inability to support any weight with the injured area unstable in a joint.

Treatment for Sports Injuries Involves

Depending on the kind and severity, there are wide variations in the treatment of common sports injuries. With rest and at-home techniques, many sports injuries recover in a matter of days or weeks. However, for more severe wounds, the course of care could include:

  • Immobilization via the use of a walking boot, splint, cast, or other medical device.
  • Injections to lessen discomfort and swelling.
  • Anti-inflammatory prescription drugs.
  • Surgery to mend tears in cartilage, ligaments, or tendons, or to treat fractures.
  • The goal of physical therapy, commonly referred to as rehabilitation or rehab, is to strengthen and heal damaged body parts.

Advantages of Medical Intervention Over Self-Care

  • Returning everything to normal as quickly as possible.
  • A quicker recuperation and return to athletics.
  • Bolstering the weaker muscle groups.
  • Minimizing any discomfort and swelling caused by your wound.
  • Keeping up your cardiovascular health when you’re not playing sports.
  • Reducing the possibility of additional injuries.

The average cost of treatment in the case of sports injury may vary depending on the kind of injury, the condition, the age, and other factors like health insurance.


Depending on the kind and extent of the injury, the prognosis after sports is different. With rest and easy recovery techniques, the majority of sports injuries are minor and heal in a matter of days or weeks. Some injuries, like concussions and broken bones, require medical attention and may take several months to heal. The success rate is high and varies between 86-90%.

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