Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant - Signs, Symptoms, Treatment

Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant Details

Bones form the skeletal system and provide shape to our body. They are essential to form the structural support for our body and provide anchor to various organs. Bones are rich in storing various elements and play a very important role in our day to day life. Your bones have a soft spongy inner part called the bone marrow that is responsible for generation of healthy blood cells. These cells help you fight infections and facilitate transportation of respiratory gases in your body. When bone starts producing faulty RBC or WBC then it becomes a big reason for worry and the condition might also become cancerous. Your doctor will decide whether to carry out a bone marrow transplant, in which diseased bone marrow is replaced with healthy stem cells. Bone marrow transplant can be used to treat various type of blood related cancers, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia etc.Stem cells are the cells which are undifferentiated and have the potential to take up the function and form of desired tissue in our body. There are various types of stem cells present in our body. Doctors can extract totipotent cells from the embryo or from the umbilical cord, these cells have the ability to for any cell of our body. Pluripotent cells have the ability to form any cell of the body apart from umbilical cord or placenta. This allows the production of more normal cells and helps you restore normal life. Allogeneic Transplant - In this type of transplant the donor is either a family member, close relative or any other person whose samples have matched with the recipient.Autologous Transplant - In autologous transplant the diseased person has healthy bone marrow in his body. So doctors extract the healthy marrow and process it, after that it is introduced to the site where it is needed.

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Before Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant

Your doctor will do all the diagnostic tests to determine if you are the correct candidate for a transplant. They have to assess the problem or disease, age, physiological condition etc. After everything has been confirmed, your doctor will collect your blood sample and they will start finding a suitable donor. A suitable donor is one whose blood factors can match with that of yours. Doctors have to be extra cautious while selecting a donor as there is always a risk of rejection by your body. In case of autologous transplant, complications are comparatively less.

How it is performed

Bone marrow transplant surgery is performed in various steps.

Step 1. This step is important as in this step, marrow from the donor is collected to begin the process of transplant. The donor will be taken to the operation theatre and will lie down on the bed. He will be given local anesthesia. The sample will be collected from one of the big bones as big bones are rich in red bone marrow which is required for the transplant. The Doctor will make a very small incision to introduce an instrument into the skin and all the way into the bone to reach the soft marrow. After the instrument has reached the bone marrow, a vacuum based syringe is locked at its end. The syringe is locked at a desired quantity and the marrow is sucked out and collected.

Step 2. If the recipient is not prepared for the transplant then this process can be delayed for a suitable time. The collected sample is then freezed at several degrees below 0 to ensure that it does not lose its potency. If storing of the sample is not required then the sample is processed using various suitable techniques. The sample is centrifuged to separate the various components in several layers. As the sample is made to rotate very fast in a centrifuge machine, everything gets separated as per their weight inside the tube. After the sample has been processed the portion of interest is extracted and is introduced in the body of recipient.

Step 3. In this step recipient is prepared for receiving the graft. If the patient is suffering from some kind of blood cancer then the patient is treated with chemotherapy or any other radiation therapy to kill of all the diseased cells and their stem cells. Patients usually take some time recover from the after effects of chemotherapy and that is one reason that step 2 gets delayed.

After the patient has been prepared for receiving the graft, the patient is taken to the operation theater and the infected bone is exposed or is made accessible using various sophisticated instruments. After reaching the marrow of the affected bone, healthy marrow is injected into the area to replace the nonfunctional or faulty cells. After completion of transplantation, the wound is closed and dressing is applied. Your stay in the hospital depends upon the type of therapy you have undergone.


You should follow the instructions of your surgeon carefully to avoid any infection or complication. It takes time for you to recover from the surgery and for it to show results. Your immune system becomes weak and takes time to rejuvenate itself. You should be careful in avoiding infections and various other pathogenic diseases.

Potential Risks

The procedure needs to be administered carefully and utmost care should be taken to avoid clinical infections. Some complications include anemia, bleeding in the lungs, intestines, brain, and other areas of the body, cataracts, clotting in the small veins of the liver, damage to the kidneys, liver, lungs, and heart, delayed growth in children who receive a bone marrow transplant, early menopause, graft failure, which means that the new cells do not settle into the body and start producing stem cells, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a condition in which the donor cells attack your own body, infections, which can be very serious, inflammation and soreness in the mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach, called mucositis, pain, stomach problems, including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.

Cost for Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant

India from $30,000
Turkey from $45,000
Spain from $188,600
UK from $300,000
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