Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) Surgery in India

Last Modified: June 5, 2020  |   Created on: June 2, 2017
Heart
“TOF surgery cost in India is estimated to be around $8000.. This is just a fraction of what the same surgery costs in the US. The TOF surgery cost in the US is estimated to be around $50000.
Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) Surgery Cost in India

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a rare condition that must only be treated by a highly experienced cardiac surgeon. Since this congenital defect comprises of four different problem areas or defects, the surgery lasts for over a period of four to five hours.

Because of the intricacies involved in the treatment procedure and sensitivity of the condition, surgery for TOF in India costs a bit higher than a majority of other cardiology surgical procedures. The surgeon takes a step-wise approach to correct the defects, moving from one defect to another in a row.

The cost of Fallot’s tetralogy treatment in India depends on several factors. Some of the major factors that determine Fallot’s tetralogy treatment cost in India include the following:

  • Choice of hospital
  • Choice of city
  • Condition of the patient
  • Side procedures required or not
  • Number of diagnostic tests conducted
  • Number of days spent in hospital
  • Critical care required or not
  • Surgeon’s fees
  • Hospital fees
  • Occurrence of complications

Despite all these factors that control the cost of TOF surgery in India, the total amount remains less than what the same procedure costs in any other country in the world, including the US, the UK, Malaysia, Russia and Canada.

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Tetralogy of Fallot Treatment in India

Fallot’s tetralogy treatment in India is recommended for children who suffer from a congenital heart defect. It is a rare and complex disorder that alters the normal flow of blood through the heart.

“Tetralogy of Fallot” derives its name from the fact that it encompasses four (tetra) different congenital heart defects. This defect affects 5 out of every 10,000 babies born in a year. Girls are at an equal risk of suffering from any of the Fallot’s tetralogy disorder as boys.

Tetralogy of Fallot Treatment

Fallot’s tetralogy treatment in India is conducted at all major multispeciality hospitals. The best hospitals in India are equipped with all the major facilities to conduct successful medical and surgical treatment of children suffering from Fallot’s tetralogy.

Some of these high-end facilities include the presence of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), cardiac care units (CCUs), pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and normal intensive care units (ICUs). In addition, other state-of-the-art facilities such as life support system, oxygen tanks, artificial heart-lung bypass machines, and heart monitors are also present within the premises of the hospital.

Tetralogy of Fallot treatment in India involves the treatment of all the four types of defects – ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, and an overriding aorta. VSD treatment in India is a common cardiology treatment conducted at all major multispeciality hospitals in India.

The best hospitals for Fallot’s tetralogy treatment in India are located in different cities. These cities are connected through all major flights. The best Fallot’s tetralogy treatment hospitals in India offer attractive packages to medical tourists, which includes the cost of boarding, lodging, medical treatment, and other facilities.

The Four TOF Defects

  1. Ventricular Septal Defect

    The left chambers of the heart are separated from the right ones through a septum. A ventricular septal defect is characterised by a hole in the septum that divides the ventricles, the two lowermost chambers of the heart. This leads to the mixing of the oxygenated and the deoxygenated blood.

  2. Pulmonary Stenosis

    In the case of pulmonary stenosis, the narrowing of the pulmonary valve takes place. Thus, the heart has to beat faster and harder to be able to pump blood effectively to the lungs.

  3. Right Ventricular Hypertrophy

    This condition is characterised by the thickening of the right ventricle. This is because the heart has to pump faster than it should (due to pulmonary stenosis) to supply blood to the lungs.

  4. Overriding Aorta

    This condition is characterised by incorrect placement of the aorta. Usually, the aorta is connected to the left ventricle. However, in the case of TOF, the aorta is placed between the left and right ventricles. As a result, deoxygenated blood sometimes travel to the aorta instead of the pulmonary artery in the case of TOF patient.

Causes of Fallot’s Tetralogy

TOF is a congenital disorder, which may be triggered by several factors. In addition, children with genetic disorders often end up suffering from congenital heart defects as well, including TOF. The following risk factors that mothers are exposed to during pregnancy may cause TOF in infants:
  • Viral illness
  • Alcohol overuse
  • Diabetes
  • Poor or inadequate nutrition
  • Heredity factors

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Lyfboat is a free advisory platform; we do not charge any fees from patients. In fact, we negotiate the price that Indian hospitals offer. In some cases we are able to reduce the cost by negotiating upto 20% of what Hospitals generally offer. We advise the best treatment from the top hospital/surgeon at best price.

Fallot’s Tetralogy Signs and Symptoms

Babies suffering from Fallot’s tetralogy have a bluish tint to their skin that is visible on their lips and nails as well. This indicated the presence of low amounts of oxygen in their blood. In addition, the baby may also suffer from the following symptoms:

  • Breathing difficulty
  • Tiredness and limping movement
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Always fussy
  • Loss of response to a parent’s voice and touch
  • Low or no weight gain
  • Heart murmur
  • Clubbed fingernails

Fallot’s Tetralogy Diagnosis

The diagnosis of Fallot’s tetralogy involves both physical and medical examination of the baby. The signs and symptoms identified by the doctor trigger the need to conduct further tests to diagnose the problem.

Physical Examination: As a part of a physical exam, the doctor first uses a stethoscope to check for the heartbeat of the baby and the functioning of his or her heart. In addition, they observe the overall general condition of the skin of the baby, their breathing rate and facial appearance.

Medical Examination: One or a combination of the following tests may be conducted to diagnose Fallot’s tetralogy:

Echocardiogram: This painless test makes use of ultrasound waves to check for the beating of the heart. The colored picture of the heart on the screen lets doctors identify if there is any problem with the pumping of the blood.

Electrocardiogram: This test is used to monitor the electrical activity of the heart. It is a painless and safe test used to identify whether the heart is pumping regularly or not.

Cardiac catheterization: During this test, a thin tube called a catheter is inserted into a vein in the groin, arm or neck and then threaded through the heart. A dye injected into the vein to check the flow of blood through the blood and the heart vessels. This helps identify whether the blood is getting mixed between chambers and also helps identify the pressure inside the heart chambers.

Pulse oximetry: This test helps assess the levels of oxygen in the blood.

X-ray of the chest: This test is used to take the picture of the heart and the lungs and identify the signs of fluid retention.

Fallot’s Tetralogy Surgery Success Rate

Fallot’s tetralogy is a complex and rare procedure, which is only treated with the help of surgery. There are different types of surgical procedures that a surgeon will conduct during the treatment of Fallot’s tetralogy since the condition itself involves four different defects that must be corrected.

Fallot’s tetralogy surgery involves the widening of the pulmonary blood vessels. The vessels are either widened or replaced altogether. If needed, the surgeons may also widen or enlarge the passageway that connects the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. This helps improve the flow of blood to the lungs.

In addition to this, the surgeon also closes the ventricular septal defect with the help of a patch. This helps prevent the mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.

Correcting these two major problems helps rectify the problems that result due to the other two defects of the heart in Fallot’s tetralogy. This helps relax the right ventricle, which no longer needs to pump faster to maintain the flow of blood.

Recovery After Fallot’s Tetralogy Surgery

Recovery after TOF surgery takes months. The incision made during the surgery usually takes about six to eight weeks to heal completely. Sometimes, the only temporary repair is done due to the small size of the infant. The infant is, therefore, made to undergo another surgery after a few years for full repair of the defects. Extra care must be taken while feeding the infant after the surgery. He or she may need extra nutrition after the surgery. Consult your doctor about the feeding routine. Ideally, the baby should be fed at frequent intervals.

Frequently asked Questions (FAQs) about Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) Surgery in India

Q. Can TOF be diagnosed before the baby is born?

Before a baby is born, Tetralogy of Fallot may be diagnosed using fetal echocardiogram (ultrasound). This test is used to confirm the diagnosis by taking images of the fetus’s heart. It is an ultrasound test that can detect problems with the structure of the heart and how it is working with the defects.

Q. How does this condition affect the heart?

Normally, the left side of the heart pumps blood to the all the other parts of the body, while the right side of the heart pumps blood collected from body to the lungs. Children with tetralogy of Fallot have a hole in their heart, through which the blood can travel across the hole (VSD) from the right chamber (right ventricle) to the left chamber (left ventricle). This allows mixing of oxygen-rich and oxygen-deficient blood.

Due to the obstruction in the pulmonary valve from the right ventricle to the lung artery, the normal amount of blood does not get from pumped to the lungs. At times, the pulmonary valve may be completely obstructed, resulting in pulmonary atresia.

Q. What are ‘tet spells’?

Babies with unrepaired tetralogy of Fallot may sometimes have condition called “tet spells”. In a ‘tet spell’, the oxygen level in the blood suddenly drops, causing the baby to become blue. The baby may also have trouble breathing, very fussy, or lose consciousness, or become very tired and weak and do not respond to the parent’s touch or voice.

Q. What is the surgical treatment for tetralogy of fallot?

Tetralogy of Fallot is generally treated with two types of surgeries. One is to provide temporary relief using a shunt and enable more blood flow to the lungs. The other is done to completely repair the two most important abnormalities that are involved in tetralogy of Fallot. During the surgery, surgeon will place a patch on the VSD defect and widen or replace the pulmonary valve as well as enlarge the passage to the pulmonary artery.

Q. Do all the children with tetralogy of Fallot need surgery?

Yes, TOF can be fatal and all children with this condition need to have surgery to fix the defect. Most infants have the surgery before they are 1-year-old, usually done around age 6 months. Majority of children who have had surgery will need more surgical or interventional procedures in their adulthood.

Q. Will the infant be able to have an active life after surgery?

According to the CDC, most infants with successful complete repair are able to live active and healthy lives after their surgery. However, regular follow-up visits with a cardiologist are important, to monitor the progress and keep a check on cardiac or other health conditions that may develop as they get older.

Q. Will my child have any heart problems after surgery?

Children and adults who had surgery for repair of tetralogy of Fallot defects may have some long-term cardiac problems, such as problems with heart function, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), or problems caused by the original repair. These heart problems are manageable with medicines, medical procedures, or surgery.

Dr. Surbhi Suden

Written By Dr. Surbhi Suden

Dr. Surbhi Suden is one of the founders of Lyfboat and a doctor with a renowned name in the Medical tourism industry. She has been working with international patients since 2008 and is a deeply committed professional with a long term vision of transforming the current healthcare scenarios.

Fallot’s Tetralogy Treatment Hospital in India

There are several best hospitals for Fallot’s tetralogy treatment in India located across the entire length and breadth of the country. These hospitals offer state-of-the-art medical services at an extremely affordable cost. The affordable cost of Fallot’s tetralogy treatment in India is one of the reasons behind the huge influx of medical tourists from abroad. By coming to India, a medical tourist spends just a fraction of what it costs in other developed countries with similar quality of medical and surgical treatment facilities.

The best cardiology hospitals in India house some of the top cardiologists. The top cardiologists in India hold a great experience in handling all types of patients and the complications associated with their medical condition.

A majority of top doctors in India are educated and trained from abroad. They hold extensive experience in conducting medical and surgical treatment using top-notch technology and the latest technology. The best hospitals for Fallot’s tetralogy in India make sure to keep themselves updated as per the latest trends in the field of healthcare.

Each year, hundreds of medical tourists from the Arab nations and Western countries such as the US, UK, and Russia come to India for cardiology procedures. Affordable cost of medical treatment, top-class medical services and around the clock availability of doctors are some of the top reasons why medical tourists decide to come to India for medical treatment.

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